Group 2 Periodic Table | Elements & General Properties (2024)


It is a tabular display of chemical elements, arranged in order of atomic number in rows so that elements with similar atomic structure and recurring chemical properties appear in vertical columns. The seven rows of the table are called a periodic table.

Group 2 Periodic Table | Elements & General Properties (1)

In the periodic table, chemical elements are present in rowshorizontally in order of increasing atomic number and vertically according tothe recurring properties of their atoms.

Metals are on the left side and non-metal are on the rightside of the periodic table


In the periodic table of chemical elements, there is a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements. There are multiple ways of grouping the elements but they are commonly divided into metals, non-metals, metalloids. There are also more specific groups like alkali metals, transition metals, rare metals, alkaline earth, halogens, and noble gases.

Group 2 Periodic Table | Elements & General Properties (2)

The 18 vertical columns of the table are called Groups. Thes-, p- and d-block elements of the periodic table are arranged into these columnsor groups. Each group of elements having the same number of valence electrons. TheSame group elements have similar properties and reactivity. These elements tendto show patterns in atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.


Group 2 Periodic Table | Elements & General Properties (3)

Group 2 elements are:

  • Beryllium
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Strontium
  • Barium
  • Radium

Group 2 elements are called alkaline metals because they formalkaline solutions, hydroxides, when reacting with water and their oxides arefound in the earth’s crust.


  • Theyhave low electron affinity.
  • Group1 metals are less reactive than group 2 metals.
  • Itsvalence shell contains 2 electrons
  • Theyhave low electronegativity
  • Compoundsof alkali metals are often insoluble in water
  • Alkalinemetals are usually Shiny, silvery.
  • Theyhave ions with a +2 charge.
  • Theyare solid
  • Theyare harder, denser, stronger
  • Theyare found in the earth crust


Group 2
Atomic number 4
Block s
State at 20⁰ Solid
Melting point 1287C,2349F,1560K
Boiling point 2468C,4474F,2741K
Density (g cm-3) 1.85
Key isotopes 9Be
Relative atomic mass 9.012
Electron configuration (He)2s2


It is a rare element in-universe. Beryllium was discovered in1798 by French chemist Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin. The name wasderived from the Greek name beryl,‘beryllo’. Friedrich Wohler at berlin in 1828 isolated the beryllium metal.Beryllium generally occurs in the earth’s crust to the extent of 0.0002percent. Beryllium is a steel-gray metal. It is quite brittle. Its chemicalproperties resemble aluminum. Emerald is known to be a variety of beryl.

Physical properties

It has a close-packed hexagonal crystal has avery high melting point which makes beryllium metal the best heat dissipationcharacteristics per unit has a low coefficient of linear thermalexpansion. These characteristics make unique stability under thermal loading.In the air, beryllium resists oxidation and is extracted by themineral beryl.

Chemical properties

While bonding with the other atoms, it has a very high ionizationpotential and strong polarization. Beryllium has a +2 oxidation allowsforming many covalent dissolves in non- oxidizing acids. Binary compoundsare formed by the combination of beryllium with non-metals such as Berylliumoxide (BeO). It is white solid and has a very high melting point. Emerald andaquamarine contain Beryllium.


  • Itis used to make semiconductor devices.
  • Itis useful in making radio equipment and engines.
  • Itis used in making windows for X-rays tubes.
  • Usefulfor mirrors and camera shutters.
  • Itis fabricated into gyroscopes, computer parts, and accelerometers.


Symbol Mg
Atomic number 12
Atomic mass 24.305
Electron configuration 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2
Oxidation state +2
Specific gravity 1.74 at 20,68
Melting point 650(1202
Boiling point 1090(1994)
Thermal conductivity 156 W m-1K-1
Atomic Radius 150pm
Electrical conductivity 22.4 x 106 Sm-1


It was first isolated in 1808by SirHumphrey Davy by the process of mercury evaporation from the magnesiumamalgam which is made by the electrolyzing a mixture of moist magnesia andmercuric oxide. By heating, mercury was removed from the amalgam and leave themercury metal. He isolated many other alkalies and alkali earth metals.

In June 1808 he described how he obtained magnesium byremoving mercury. He observed that in the air the metal turned into whitepowder and gains weight, reacts with oxygen and returned to its oxide form.

In the earth’s crust, it is the eighth-most is found in more than 60 is found in large deposits ofdolomite, magnesite, brucite, and carnallite and in mineral water wheremagnesium is soluble.

Production of magnesium

The double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, dolomite isfar more widely distributed and seawater provides an inexhaustible source ofthe chloride in the dilute form, while certain concentrated solutions ofmagnesium salts are present in the Dead sea.

There are two methods for the production of magnesium

  • Electrolysis ( Dow process )
  • Thermalreduction (Pidgeon process )
  • Refining


It consists of two steps

  • Thepreparation of raw material contains magnesium chloride
  • Bythe separation of magnesium chloride into magnesium metal and chlorine gas inelectrolytic cells

MgCl2 Mg + Cl2

Magnesium produced on the power consumption of 12 – 18kilowatt-hour per the dehydration process, chlorine can also bereused.

Thermal reduction

In the thermal production of magnesium, the endothermic reactiontakes place. On the high temperature, the reduction of oxides with silicon,frequently ferrosilicon alloy is provided to obtain metal. Carbon is also carriedout in this process

2MgO + Si + 2CaO 2Mg + Ca2SiO4

MgO + Ca Mg + CaO


After extraction, crude magnesium istransported to the shops to remove impurities.

Characteristics and uses

  • Magnesiumpowder is an explosive hazard.
  • Itis widely used in the manufacturing of mobiles, laptops, cameras and otherelectronic components.
  • Ithas good high-temperature mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance.
  • Itis used in the manufacturing of aircraft, car engines and missile construction.


Symbol Ca
Color Silvery- gray
Atomic number 20
Atomic weight 40.078
Melting point 842(1548)
Boiling point 1484(2703
Specific gravity 1.55 ( 20
Oxidation state +2
Electron configuration 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2
Atomic radius 194pm


For centuries calcium oxide is used to make plaster andmortar, obtained by heating 1808 Humphrey Davy tried to reducemoist lime by electrolysis but he was not successful. Then he tried the mixtureof mercury oxide and lime, this produced an amalgam of calcium and mercury.Then Davy tried using more lime in the mixture and produced more of the amalgamfrom which he distilled off the mercury and leaving just calcium. The wordcalcium derives from the Latin word for lime ‘calx’.

Production of calcium

  • Thereaction of calcium chloride with sodium lead alloy
  • Bythe electrolysis of molten salt of calcium chloride
  • Reductionof calcium compounds by use of Si, Al, Ti, Be

Facts about the calcium

  • Calcium is not found free. It the 5th most abundant element in the earth’s crust. Calcium is also abundant on the Moon.
  • Calcium is the most important nutrition for plants and animals. It also exists in the human body, found mainly in bones and teeth.
  • Snails and shellfish use calcium in the form of calcium carbonate to build their shells.
  • Dairy products and grains are the primary sources of dietary calcium.
  • Later the Egypt’s pyramid blocks were built using limestone. The blocks were held together with gypsum and lime-based mortar.


  • Calciumis used in the production process of other metals like uranium and thorium
  • Calciumis also used in vacuum tubes.
  • Itcan be alloyed with aluminum, copper, lead, magnesium, and beryllium.
  • Usedin cement and concrete
  • Itis used to remove sulfur, oxygen, and carbon from alloys.
  • Itis used in the making of chalks and statues.
  • Usedin the making of cheese.


Symbol Sr
Atomic number 38
Atomic weight 87.62
Melting point 769
Boiling point 1,384
Oxidation state +2
Specific gravity 2.63
Electron configuration (Kr)5s2
Atomic radius 200pm


It was discovered by the Irish chemist Adair Crawford in 1790.It is found from the lead mine near village Strontian in Scotland. Strontium isthe 15th most abundant element on the earth’s crust. In 1808 HumphreyDavy isolated the strontium metal, who electrolyzed a mixture of the moisthydroxide or chloride with mercuric oxide, using a cathode oxide and thenevaporated the mercury from the resultant amalgam. Davy built a very largebattery consists of 600 plates from which he passes the electricity throughsalts breaking them down to isolate a new element. He made a paste of magnesiumoxide and strontium sulfate and made a depression in a paste to place mercurymetal as an electrode. Platinum is also used as an electrode at a mercuryelectrode, strontium mercury amalgam is formed when the electricity passesthrough the paste. By heating mercury removed from the amalgam and leave the strontiummetal.


Strontium isotopes are considered non-toxic. Strontium is amixture of 4 stable isotopes. It a silvery metal with a pale yellow tint. It isharder than barium and softer than calcium. When strontium reacts with water itproduces strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It occurs naturally in compoundsand other elements that’s why it has extreme reactivity with oxygen and air.


  • Strontiumis used in the manufacture of color television picture tubes.
  • Itis used in the fireworks and signal flares.
  • Itscarbonates are used to make a certain type of glass.
  • Itplays a great role in biology. Strontium deposited in human bones and attacheson the surface of the bones, it can replace the calcium and lead to the growingproblems.
  • Usedin toothpaste to reduce sensitivity
  • Itcan increase the risk of cardiovascular problems
  • Itis used in refining zinc and also used to produce ceramic magnets.


Symbol Ba
Atomic number 56
Atomic weight 137.3
Melting point 725oC,998.2K
Boiling point 1897oC,2170K
Electron configuration (Xe)6s2
Atomic radius 215pm
Specific gravity 3.59


In 1774, a Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered a new base (BaO).In pyrolusite, BaO considered a minor component and he prepared the crystals of barium sulfate from that base. Then he sent the crystals of barium sulfate to John Gottlieb Gahn. After a month, he founded that mineral barite is composed of barium sulfate BaSO4. In the early 17th century, the crystalline form of barite found near Italy. After heating with charcoal it became an impure barium sulfide. It is an unusual discovery of Bologna stone, nobody suspected that there was a new element to be discovered.

In 1808, for the first time, Sir Humphrey Davy isolated theBarium metal. By electrolysis, he decomposed the barium sulfate. The nameBarium is given from the Greek word Barysmeans heavy. Barium is found 0.045% in the earth’s crust and 13 ug/L inseawater.


Barium is a very reactive metallic element. It resemblescalcium. It is a silvery-white metal. When it cuts, it quickly turns into ablack color due to the formation of barium oxide. Barium is commonly found asbarite and witherite. It has a good is a mixture of 6 stableisotopes. Barium compounds that are soluble having a very poisonous property.


  • Bariumis used in the manufacturing of rubber, vacuum tubes, and pyrotechnics.
  • Itis used as a weighting compound in the manufacturing of glass, paints, andpigments.
  • Itis used as a deoxidizer in copper refining.
  • InX-rays, it is used as an opaque medium to examine the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Itis used in capacitors
  • Usedin non-linear optical applications


Symbol Ra
Atomic number 88
Atomic weight (226) no stable isotopes
Electron configuration (Rn) 7s2
Melting point 700oC, 973K
Boiling point 1500oC, 1773K
Atomic radius 215 pm
Specific gravity 5.5 g/cm3
Oxidation state +2


In 1898, radium was discovered by Pierre Curie, Marie Curie,and an assistant G. Belmont. Radium compound extracted from the uraninite, hepublished the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences. By electrolysis ofradium chloride, radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie in1910. Isotopes of radium have half-lives much shorter than the age of theearth. According to the geological survey, radium would have disappeared a longtime ago. Thus it is found in unrefined uranium.


Radium is silvery-white metal. When exposed to air itblackens itself. It is volatile than barium. It has very high emits alpha, beta and gamma rays. It is a member of uranium decayseries.


  • Alphaparticles that are emitted by radium were used to initiate nuclear reactions.
  • Ithas a major role in medicines, particularly in the treatment of cancer by theradiation of gamma rays
  • Radiumwas used for the production of luminous paints but now it is not safe to usethese paints because of its hazard property.
  • Incommercially, it is used for the production of toothpaste, hair creams
  • Itis also used in the production of food items due to its curing power.


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Group 2 Periodic Table | Elements & General Properties (2024)


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